全民阅读逐渐形成 更需引导推动

 

“书犹药也,善读之可以医愚。”阅读是了解世界和获取知识的重要手段,阅读是传承文明、提高素质的重要途径。随着社会的进步和科学技术的不断提高,我们所阅读的书籍已经不单单局限于印刷成册的书籍,网络上海量的电子书,丰富多彩,内容广泛,为人们阅读创造了更好的条件。在第27个“世界读书日”来临之际,临潼调查队展开居民阅读情况调查,有107名临潼居民参与了调查,结果显示,阅读媒介多样化丰富了居民的阅读方式,智能手机已成为阅读的主要媒介,其方便性提升了居民的阅读习惯,增加了阅读时间,阅读内容更为丰富,同时也存在年轻人因电子娱乐活动占据时间而无心阅读,以及图书馆等公共读书场所少且利用率低,有组织的读书活动开展频次少、氛围淡的情况。

 

 一、样本基本情况

107名参与本次阅读情况调查居民中,从性别结构来看,男性占比43.9%,女性占比56.1%;从年龄结构来看,1830岁的占比31.8%3140岁占比19.6%4150岁占比16.8%5160岁占比25.3%61岁以上占比6.5%;从文化程度来看,初中及以下学历占比17.8%,高中文化占比13.1%,专科及本科占比62.6%,研究生及以上文化程度占比6.5%;从职业类别来看,行政事业类占比45.8%,企业从业人员占比29%,个体经营占比5.6%,无业者占比17.8%,在校学生占比1.8%

 

二、居民阅读基本现状

(一)多数人喜欢阅读,但阅读频次不高

通过调查临潼居民对阅读喜爱程度看出,喜欢阅读的居民占53.3%;比较喜欢阅读的占30.8%;不喜欢阅读的占比15.9%。喜欢阅读的受访者中,从性别上来看,男性喜欢阅读的达到68.1%,高于女性;从年龄结构上来看5160岁年龄段喜欢阅读的占比最高,占比63%;从职业类别来看,企业从业人员喜欢阅读的人最多,占比64.5%;从文化程度上来看,其中专科及本科学历的人喜欢阅读占比最多,占比59.7%

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

图1  临潼区居民阅读频率

从居民阅读频率来看,有17.7%的居民表示平均每周阅读频率不到一次, 31.8%的人表示每周阅读频率一到两次,20.6%的人每周会阅读三次以上,仅29.9%的人每天会阅读。阅读频次不高反映出人们的阅读习惯还未完全养成。

 

(二)中老年人阅读时间较长

关于每天阅读的居民的阅读时长调查表明,有41.1%的人表示每天花费在阅读上的时间在半个小时之内,36.5%的人每天阅读时长在一个小时左右,22.4%的人表示每天阅读时长在两个小时左右。可以看出大部分居民还是保持良好的阅读习惯,而在各个年龄层中,年龄在50岁以上的人每日阅读时间最长,年龄在51至60岁每日阅读时长超过一个小时的占比88.5%,年龄61岁以上每日阅读时长全部超过一个小时。

 

 (三)年轻人因工作压力大及电子娱乐活动导致“无心阅读”

通过调查不喜欢阅读的以年轻人居多,理由主要有两大原因:一是感到工作太累,经常加班没有时间阅读的占比52.9%;二是觉得阅读无趣,自己无法静心看书以及玩手机、玩电脑等电子产品碎片化的阅读占用了大量阅读时间的分别占比29.4%。近年来,由于手机短视频平台的迅猛发展,让许多人沉迷于短视频中,占用了大量时间,而导致很多人静不下心来阅读。

 

(四)手机已成为阅读的主要媒介

  数字化时代正在全方位地改造着人们摄取信息的方式,阅读也不例外,阅读介质多样化,特别是智能手机的普及极大地改变了人们的阅读方式,因其有着阅读成本低、性价比高、携带方便等特点,减少了对阅读时间和空间的限制,给人们获取阅读内容带来便利条件,极大的方便人们随时随地阅读。调查显示,用手机阅读的人达到94.4%,用纸质书籍阅读的人47.7%,电子设备阅读的人25.2%;其中有55.1%的人更喜欢手机阅读。

 

(五)学历越高阅读量越大

关于临潼居民2021年的阅读量调查结果如下:看书多于3本的占比21.5%,阅读量在2-3本的占比15.9%,阅读量在1-2本的占比34.6%,阅读量低于一本的占比28%。2020年我国成年国民人均纸质图书阅读量为4.70本,可以看出临潼居民的阅读量较少。从图三可以看出,居民文化程度与阅读量呈现正相关关系,文化程度越高,年阅读量越多。21年阅读量多于三本的其中文化程度是研究生以上的人数占比42.9%,21年阅读量少于一本的其中文化程度是初中及以下的人数占比63.2%。

 

2  居民文化程度与阅读量的关系

 

(六)阅读内容丰富多样

受访者喜爱阅读的内容丰富多样,读者更喜欢快速获得信息、小知识等。喜欢看手机上短碎的新闻、小知识等文字信息,占57%;喜欢看哲学宗教/军事科普/文化教育/政治经济等综合性书籍占比44.9%;喜欢看言情、武侠、侦探、惊悚等小说类占比39.3%;喜欢看娱乐时尚/动漫幽默/休闲旅游类占比31.8%;喜欢专业/技能/考试辅导等实用性书籍占比29.9%。可以看出人们平时阅读目的休闲娱乐较多,喜欢看手机短碎阅读占比高,但是由于手机阅读内容相对浅显,阅读时间相对碎片化,阅读内容碎片化信息较多、涉猎混杂,所以容易造成手机阅读的浮躁和功利性,缺少深读静思之美。因此读者要学会有效利用碎片化时间规划出整体化的阅读,来弥补不足。

 

 

3  喜爱阅读内容

 

调查显示,男女对阅读内容偏好不同。男性更喜欢阅读哲学宗教/军事科普/文化教育/政治经济等综合性书籍和手机上短碎的新闻,小知识等文字信息,分别占比59.6%和44.7%;女性则更喜欢阅读手机上短碎的新闻、小知识等文字信息和言情、武侠、侦探、惊悚等小说类,分别占比66.7%和40%。

  

(七)阅读环境居家为主

 从受访者日常阅读场来看,调查显示,主要在家阅读的占比86%,其次是上下班路上阅读的占比8.4%,办公等其他场所占比4.7%,在图书馆阅读的占比为0.9%。从受访者阅读环境选择来看,居家阅读是多数人的选择,喜欢在家里阅读的人数占74.8%,其次是喜欢在图书馆阅读的人数占比13.1%,喜欢在上下班路上阅读的人数占比6.5%,喜欢在网红书店占3.7%,喜欢在其他地方阅读的占比1.9%。图书馆、书店等场所对人们的吸引力不够、利用率偏低。

 

(八)专门的阅读场所少且使用率偏低

社区图书馆作为社区文化的重要文化设施之一,无论在丰富居民文化生活,传递科学信息方面,还是在进行社会教育等方面都将产生深远的影响。据调查,有15.9%的居民表示自己的社区有图书室,57%的居民表示自己社区没有图书室,还有27.1%的居民不清楚是否有图书室。当问及有社区图书馆的居民去图书室的频率时, 92.5%的居民表示几乎不去社区图书馆,5.6%的居民表示每周去一至两次,仅有1.9%的居民表示每天都会去社区图书室。可以看出,居民对自己社区图书馆缺乏了解,大部分居民不会到社区图书馆看书,社区图书馆使用率低。

 

(九)读书活动少阅读氛围不浓

通过调查社区近一年有没有组织过读书会等阅读活动发现,有46.9%的居民表示没有组织过,45.8%的居民表示不清楚,8.4%的居民表示组织了一两次,1.9%的居民表示组织了三次以上。可以看出居民对社区阅读活动不关心,社区居民缺少阅读氛围。

 

四、促进全民阅读几点建议

(一)发挥政府引导,建立促进全民阅读长效机制,营造全民阅读氛围

一是要坚持规划引导,以切实的政策制度、财政投入和考核评价机制,保障全民阅读工作持续深入。将城市阅读环境、阅读行为、阅读意识等各项指标综合计算后形成城市阅读指数。将城市阅读指数纳入文明城市指标考核体系中,通过文明城市创建促进全民阅读。二是树立典型促进全民阅读加大全民阅读公益广告宣传,对促进全民阅读活动中推荐的典型做法进行宣传推广,扩大社会对全民阅读典型的认知度和认同度,真正起到典型的示范引领作用。

 

(二)加大经费投入力度、完善基础设施建设

一是政府应当保证全民阅读基本公共服务所需经费投入,争取资金、加大投入、丰富资源。同时鼓励企事业单位、社会组织、个人参与和投入全民阅读,对全民阅读促进活动予以专项经费补贴。二是丰富区图书馆和社区图书室的资源。区图书馆和社区图书室是公益事业,政府财政应加大对图书馆的投入,丰富各类馆藏资源,逐步完善基层共享工程建设,及时更新升级,从而满足人们对不同知识的需求,有效推进全民阅读的开展。三是完善设施创优环境。随着社会的发展,人们对阅读环境的要求,也有了很大提升,图书馆要在功能布局、环境布置、设备设施等方面,处处考虑读者。充分考虑馆舍的布置,达到令人心旷神怡的效果。可以通过摆设绿色植物、挂名人字画,营造温馨的阅读氛围。

 

(三)创新服务方法、丰富服务内容

社区图书馆在社区建设中具有重要作用。因此,各级政府和文化管理部门、社区管理者、图书馆工作者应该明确方向,转变观念,推进全民阅读,必须创新方法,采取“走出去,请进来”等方式,从“以书为主”向“以人为主”转变,开展丰富多彩的阅读推广活动,主动吸引读者。第一,编制导读书目,以推介、引导和组织居民阅读。第二,倡导建立“书友会”、“文学社”等社会团体,搭起读者交流平台,带动更多的阅读爱好者加入。定期举办读书交流会,介绍自己读过的好书,谈自己的读书心得,分享阅读,共同进步。同时可邀请专家、老师参与点评,听取提升阅读写作能力讲座。第三,探索街道图书馆与家庭共建书屋,鼓励个人藏书与大家分享,根据家庭书屋每年借阅图书流通量,为其配置一定数量的新书。第四,根据不同人群的需求,提供个性化的服务,让盲人、残疾人、老人不成为被遗忘的角落。

 

(四)开启“互联网+阅读”,建立城市数字阅读平台

融入“互联网+”时代,建设全市统一的数字阅读平台,增加数字化阅读资源,丰富数字化阅读服务内容。平台可对年度城市全民阅读报告、阅读工程、推荐书目、阅读引领措施、全市阅读活动进行统一发布,还可实现城市内的阅读空间及阅读组织的统筹管理,着力推动城市阅读资源均衡发展。在广场、商业中心、旅游景点等人流量较大的公共场所建设公共阅读设施,设立移动借还书亭,打造“阅读驿站”,配置优质书籍,增加阅读的便利性。利用网络、广告等手段广范围进行全民阅读宣传,将阅读这项行为融入人民日常生活中,培养全民常态化阅读习惯。